There are three types of crisis and they are as follows:
- situational crisis--> refers to extraordinarily stressful life events such as loss of loved ones, loss of investment, or losing one's home to a fire.
- maturational crisis--> refers to events that are normal processes of growth and development, examples are adolescence, birth of first child, and retirement.
- adventitious crisis--> refers to extremely stressful events that are catastrophic, unplanned, and accidental e.g. war, hurricanes, terrorist attacks, rape (note: some reference books do not include adventitious crisis and so rape is listed under situational crisis)
To help the client cope with a very stressful crisis situation, mental health practitioners utilize crisis intervention. Crisis intervention is an active but temporary entry into the client's life to support the client, help client resolve existing crisis, restore the client to precrisis level of functioning, and to facilitate the client's attainment of a higher level of functioning.
During crisis intervention, a nurse must have the ability to make the necessary assessment of the client's emotional and physical needs while providing emotional support and gaining the client's coopration. The roles of the psychiatric and mental health nurse includes assessment of the severity of the crisis (with safety in mind) and client's perception of the problem, determination of and enlisting available situational supports, exploration of previous coping behaviors and helping the client acquire more effective adaptive behaviors, and providing encouragement while working with the client during the crisis intervention process.
Crisis and Crisis Intervention Quick Facts (NEW)
Phases of Crisis (NEW)