Ward Class

An Online Resource Site For Student Nurses

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Ward Class is an online resource for student nurses. Created with the aim of helping student nurses cope with the demands of nursing school and clinicals, it offers free downloads, notes, sample NCPs, sample drug studies, study aids, news and updates, and practical tips to its users.

Site Announcement

The December 2012 PRC Nursing Board Exam Result is already available here at Ward Class and at Pinoy R.N.




Important Announcement

You might have noticed that our nursing review bullets and nursing downloads are inaccessible. This is because our file server is temporarily offline. As of the moment, we are working to resolve the issue.

Thank you for your understanding.

November 2008 PRC Nursing Board Examination Tips on How to Study Effectively

I just got back from a 3-day out-of-town trip to attend a blogging event. To tell you frankly, I'm dead-tired but since I know Pinoy R.N. recently published a very informative entry which will be a big help to our November 2008 Nursing Board Examination candidates as they prepare for the nursing board exam, I decided to get off the bed and write about it. Hence, this post.

Pinoy R.N.'s most recent article features tips on how to study effectively in preparation for the Nursing Board Examination scheduled this November. The November 2008 Nursing Board Examination is scheduled on November 29 & 30, 2008.

To succeed in the November 2008 PRC Nursing Board Examination, examinees need to keep in mind that as the exam date draws near, they must learn how to effectively use very valuable study time. At this point, they must have identified which nursing topics they already know by heart and which topics they must give more attention to.

To read more about Pinoy R.N's article on how to study effectively for the November 2008 Nursing Board Examination, click HERE.

Furthermore, I'd like to remind those who are scheduled to take the Nursing Board Examination this November that Ward Class and Pinoy R.N. will be posting last-minute reminders, more board exam tips, and exam results for the November 2008 PRC Nursing Board Examination.

To get email updates of reminders, more board exam tips, and complete November 2008 Nursing Board Examination results submit your email address below:


November 2008 Nursing Board Exam Updates

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Useful Resources for the November 2008 PRC Nursing Board Examination

Only 36 days into the November 2008 PRC Nursing Board Examination as of this writing, candidates to the nursing board exam this November are already intensifying their review and maximizing their study time. Since Ward Class has been receiving requests for tips, links, downloads, and review notes for the upcoming nursing board examination, here is a list of resources that will help those who are reviewing for the November 2008 Nursing Board Examination.

Nursing Review Notes by Topic:

Medical-Surgical Nursing
Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing
Maternal and Child Nursing
Pediatric Nursing
Emergency Nursing
Pharmacology
Professional Nursing
Fundamentals of Nursing
Nursing Ethics
Microbiology and Parasitology

Study Tools:

Animated Human Atlas
Anatomy of the Heart
Breast Self-Examination Guide
Funda Quiz #1
Funda Quiz #2

Nursing Downloads
:

Developmental Milestones
Phases of Crisis
Crisis Intervention
Classification of Shock
Psychosexual Stages of Development
Elements of Personality and Topographical Model of the Mind
Psychosocial Stages of Development
Review Notes in Psychiatric Nursing
Blood Transfusion Reactions
Therapeutic Diets
Halamang Gamot
Mode of Transmission of Common Communicable Diseases
IMCI

November 2008 PRC Nursing Board Examination Tips:

Prayer for Examinees (Prayer to St. Joseph of Cupertino)
Healthy Eating for the November 2008 PRC Nursing Board Exam


The November 2008 Nursing Board Examination will be on November 29-30, 2008 (Saturday & Sunday). Ward Class and Pinoy R.N. will be posting last-minute reminders, more board exam tips, and exam results for the November 2008 PRC Nursing Board Exam.

To get email updates, submit your email address below:


November 2008 Nursing Board Exam Updates

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November 2008 Nursing Board Examination Coverage

With barely 40 days to go before the November 2008 Nursing Board Examination, candidates need to provide structure to their nursing review. At this point, those who will be taking the Nursing Board Examination this November are expected to have identified topics that they are thoroughly familiar with from those topics still requiring further readings.

Since the November 2008 Nursing Board Examination is a 5-part exam utilizing a competency-based test framework covering a broad range of nursing topics, candidates to the nursing board exam this November should have a copy of the Scope of the Nurse Licensure Examination so that they will know what topics will be covered in the exam.

If you will be taking the November 2008 PRC Nursing Board Exam, the Scope of the Nurse Licensure Examination will help provide direction to your nursing review as it specifies the topics that will be included in each of the 5 tests of the 2-day nursing board exam.

The document, which you can download here at Ward Class, will be your guide in determining which nursing topics have or haven't been tackled in your review. It will help you to evaluate your progress in your review so that you can prioritize the nursing topics you need to focus on as the exam draws near.

To download the Scope of the Nurse Licensure Examination, click here. The file is in PDF format so you need Adobe Reader to be able to open it.

On a side note, Ward Class and Pinoy R.N. will be posting more nursing board exam tips as well as the November 2008 PRC Nursing Board Examination Results as soon as it is available. To receive email updates, enter your email address in the space provided below.



November 2008 PRC Nursing Board Exam Updates, Tips, and Results

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Reminders for November 2008 PRC Nursing Board Exam Applicants

I'd like to remind those who will be taking the November 2008 PRC Nursing Board Exam that the last day of filing for applications at the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) central or regional offices will be on Friday, October 17.

So if you and your friends intend to apply for the November 2008 Nursing Board Exam on October 17, you have to be at the PRC early and make sure to bring the complete requirements with you. You are also reminded that PRC will not accept or process applications unless personally filed by the applicant.

The PRC also opened an extension office at the Ever Gotesco Manila Plaza in Recto Avenue, Manila. The newly-opened PRC Extension Office will process applications of first-time applicants in various licensure examinations. Other services such as verification of ratings and registration of new successful examinees are included as well.

The November 2008 Nursing Board Examination will be on November 29-30, 2008 (Saturday & Sunday). Ward Class will be posting last-minute reminders, board exam tips, and exam results for the November 2008 PRC Nursing Board Exam.

To get email updates, submit your email address below:


November 2008 Nursing Board Exam Updates

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Healthy Eating for the November 2008 PRC Nursing Board Exam

Candidates to the November 2008 Nursing Board Exam are probably on the throes of anxiety right now. With the nursing board exam fast approaching, they are surely intensifying their review for the nursing board exam by attending long and rigorous review classes and doing some supplemental readings either at home or with their respective study groups.

Considering their busy schedules, I am wondering if examinees to the November 2008 Nursing Board Exam have been careful with what they eat. With more than a month to go before the date of the nursing board exam, it is very important for them to incorporate more "brain food" and performance-boosters into their diet.

Lots of articles and books have been written on how to boost performance when studying or reviewing through healthy eating. I have read a number of very informative books and articles and experts have identified the ideal foods students and examinees should include in their diet when preparing for exams such as the November 2008 Nurse Licensure Examination.

If you plan to take the November 2008 Nursing Board Exam and are having a hard time focusing on your review because of tiredness and reduced concentration, chances are, you haven't been eating enough quantities of foods generally considered as performance-boosters. And so, to help you in making the most out of your review and study time, here are examples of healthy snacks experts say will help maximize your performance as you prepare for the November 2008 PRC Nursing Board Exam:
  • Hot cocoa. A cup of hot cocoa during cold nights can increase blood flow to the brain. It has a stimulating effect increasing your concentration as you study. Just remember to read labels and choose a brand not loaded with sugar and hydrogenated oils.
  • Raw carrots or whole wheat crackers. We have to be careful in choosing our glucose sources. Snacking on raw carrot sticks or wheat crackers is ideal compared to having cake or candy bars. Wheat crackers and carrot sticks are low in glycemic index and will give you that steady rise in sugar levels that you need compared to the temporary boost you get our of eating cake or candy.
  • Plain yogurt. Plain yogurt is refreshing, vitamin-packed, and low-calorie.
  • Low-fat milk with high-fiber cereal. The carohydrates in the cereal will be a good source of glucose. The protein in milk will be your energy reserve and will keep you sated to avoid overeating.
  • A small piece of dark chocolate. Not only is dark chocolate rich in antioxidants, it can produces a stimulating effect as you study for the nursing board exams especially during midday.
  • Boiled peanuts. Boiled peanuts is a good source protein and monounsaturated fat. It also contains four times the antioxidants in roasted or raw peanuts.
  • Fruit slices. Fruits like apples, banana, melon, and mangoes are good sources of glucose and fiber and are also very rich in antioxidants. Apple is also a good source of pectin which will keep you sated for up to four hours.
  • Low-fat tuna sandwich. Snack on a hearty sandwich made out of whole-wheat bread, low-fat tuna, low-fat mayo, tomato, and lettuce. Whole wheat bread and vegetables are good sources of glucose and fiber. Tuna is rich in Omega-3 fatty acids which is known to improve cognitive function and enhance information processing.
  • Low-fat peanut butter plus whole wheat crackers. Low-fat peanut butter is a good source protein and contains the right amount of fat for staying power as you study. The whole wheat crackers are a good source of fiber and complex carbohydrates.
The key to healthy snacking when reviewing for the November 2008 PRC Nursing Board Exam is to choose food that will increase concentration and improve stamina. Remember, if you want to perform well during the November 2008 Nursing Board Exam, make more healthy food choices. Always snack on healthy food that improve brain function and boost energy levels.



Hematologic Disorders: Leukemia

  • a malignant disease of blood-forming tissues, including the bone marrow and the lymphatic system
  • characterized by a proliferation of abnormal white blood cells that do not mature beyond the blast phase; these abnormal cells crowd out healthy RBCs, WBCs, and platelets leading to bone marrow depression
  • peak incidence is 3 to 5 years among children
  • accounts for 8% of all cancers and is the most common form of cancer in children and young adults
  • half of all leukemia cases are acute, with rapid onset and progression resulting in 100% mortality within days to months without approproate therapy
  • although the cause of leukemia is unknown, risk factors include genetic factors, exposure to ionizing radiation and chemicals, congenital anomalies such as Down's and Patau's syndrome, presence of primary immunodeficiency, and infection with the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1
  • types of leukemia:
  1. acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)- the most common type of leukemia in children; acute onset; patients have a 95% chance of remission with treatment and a 75% chance of surviving 5 years or more
  2. acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL)- more common in adults (median age is 67 years); includes granulocytic and monocytic types; 60-80% of patients will obtain remission with treatment and cure rate is between 30-40%.
  3. chronic myelonous leukemia (CML)- 90% of patients have an abnormal chromosome called Philadelphia chromosome; clients go into a blast crisis and without treatment, patients die within six months of onset
  4. chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)- more often seen in men older than 50 years of age; characterized by the proliferation of early B lymphocytes and is usually discovered though a complete blood count (CBC); this leukemia is of the indolent type and may take 15 years to progress
Assessment Findings
  • anemia, weakness, pallor, dyspnea
  • bleeding, petechiae, spontaneous bleeding, ecchymoses
  • frequent infection, fever, malaise
  • excessive sweating, esp. at night
  • enlarged lymph nodes, spleen, and liver (common in ALL than in ANLL)
  • abdominal plain with weight loss and loss of appetite
  • bone pain or tenderness
  • diagnostic findings:
  1. cbc- WBC count may be normal, abnormally low, or extremely high; platelet and hemoglobin are usually low
  2. bone marrow aspiration- key diagnostic tool; shows overall increase in the number of bone marrow cells with an increase in the proportion of earlier forms
Medical Management
  1. chemotherapy for acute leukemia- given to destroy malignant cells of the bone marrow; has three phases: induction (intense and potentially life-threatening), CNS prophylaxis (chemotherapy with radiation), and maintenance phase (chemotherapy lasting 2 to 3 years and commonly used in ALL)
  2. biological therapy (immunotherapy)-uses substances that bolster the immune system's response to cancer
  3. kinase inhibitor- effective in treating early stages of CML
  4. radiation therapy- X-rays or other high-energy rays are used to damage leukemic cells and stop their growth
Surgical Management
  1. bone marrow transplant- leukemic bone marrow is replaced with leukemia-free marrow; high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy is first used to destroy unhealthy bone marrow and then is replaced by bone marrow from a compatible donor
  2. stem cell transplant- similar to bone marrow transplant except the cells are collected from the stem cells that circulate in the peripheral blood; this process can be autologous or allogenic; used more often than bone marrow transplant

Nursing Management

  1. provide care for client receiving chemotherapy and radiation
  2. assess client for signs of infection and bleeding
  3. encourage increased nutritional intake; administer antiemetics as inidicated
  4. provide support for client and family
  5. support patient during painful procedures such as bone marrow aspirations and lumbar punctures
  6. allow patient as much control as possible esp. in food selection
  7. provide health teachings on infection control, bleeding precautions, rest and dietary requirements
Prognosis

The prognosis for the different types of leukemia varies widely. With treatment, younger patients have the best chances of survival if diagnosed early. Patients with chronic leukemia also live longer than those with acute forms of leukemia as the average survival rate of patients diagnosed with chronic leukemia is 9 years.

Prevention

There is no known way to prevent leukemia but risk factors may be reduced by avoiding exposure to high doses of radiation, benzene, alkylating agents used to treat other types of cancer, and cigarette and tobaco smoke.

Related Link:

Oncologic Nursing: Chemotherapy